What do the Harlow monkeys and Dani have in common?

links for chapter 4,5,6,7, and your conventional wisdom/sociological. about your understanding of the concepts of the textbooks.through the lens of the media links you watched and in context of your life (You’re your conventional wisdom/common sense and try to become a social analyst by shifting your paradigm). Tell the readers what you watched, listened to, and read and how these impacted your understanding of the “taken for granted world.” Write how these links helped you understand chapters concepts and in what ways. It is especially interesting if you can tell us about the preconceived notions you had about some topics and how the information in the media helped change, reinforce, and/or modify that conventional wisdom. This process may be challenging at first, but I promise, it will get easier with each board. These are not summaries of what you READ and WATCHED. They are learning documents showing what you learned, how you are making connections (micro/macro) and how you are developing your sociological imagination and/or your sociological perspective. There are integration requirements for each essay.
Chapter 4: Society and Social Interaction
4.1 Types of Societies
Societies are classified according to their development and use of technology. For most of human history, people lived in preindustrial societies characterized by limited technology and low production of goods. After the Industrial Revolution, many societies based their economies around mechanized labor, leading to greater profits and a trend toward greater social mobility. At the turn of the new millennium, a new type of society emerged. This postindustrial, or information, society is built on digital technology and nonmaterial goods.
4.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Society
Émile Durkheim believed that as societies advance, they make the transition from mechanical to organic solidarity. For Karl Marx, society exists in terms of class conflict. With the rise of capitalism, workers become alienated from themselves and others in society. Sociologist Max Weber noted that the rationalization of society can be taken to unhealthy extremes.
4.3 Social Constructions of Reality
Society is based on the social construction of reality. How we define society influences how society actually is. Likewise, how we see other people influences their actions as well as our actions toward them. We all take on various roles throughout our lives, and our social interactions depend on what types of roles we assume, who we assume them with, and the scene where interaction takes place.




the book: https://openstax.org/books/introduction-sociology-3e/pages/4-1-types-of-societies#0 (4-2,4-3)
Chapter 5: Socialization
Organize:
Chapter Outline: Here is a brief overview of the major ideas introduced in this Lesson. Review this before you read the Lesson material:
5.1 Theories of Self-Development
Psychological theories of self-development have been broadened by sociologists who explicitly study the role of society and social interaction in self-development. Charles Cooley and George Mead both contributed significantly to the sociological understanding of the development of self. Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan developed their ideas further and researched how our sense of morality develops. Gilligan added the dimension of gender differences to Kohlberg’s theory.
5.2 Why Socialization Matters
Socialization is important because it helps uphold societies and cultures; it is also a key part of individual development. Research demonstrates that who we are is affected by both nature (our genetic and hormonal makeup) and nurture (the social environment in which we are raised). Sociology is most concerned with the way that society’s influence affects our behavior patterns, made clear by the way behavior varies across class and gender.
5.3 Agents of Socialization
Our direct interactions with social groups, like families and peers, teach us how others expect us to behave. Likewise, a society’s formal and informal institutions socialize its population. Schools, workplaces, and the media communicate and reinforce cultural norms and values.
5.4 Socialization Across the Life Course
Socialization is a lifelong process that reoccurs as we enter new phases of life, such as adulthood or senior age. Resocialization is a process that removes the socialization we have developed over time and replaces it with newly learned rules and roles. Because it involves removing old habits that have been built up, resocialization can be a stressful and difficult process.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K-RvJQxqVQchttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WbBm_YLwowc
Apply and Engage:
https://www.thisamericanlife.org/317/unconditional-love
First, listen to a This American Life episode called “Unconditional Love” (Links to an external site.) Listen to the prologue and Act One. (You can certainly listen to Act Two as well, but I’m not as interested in that story.)Prologue: The Harlow monkeys. I suspect some of you may have read about this experiment in Psychology class. Now, you need to view it through a sociological lens. Think about Harry Harlow’s hypothesis and try to determine his independent and dependent variables. This is also another opportunity to use your Sociological Imagination. History, Structure and Culture, and People: Consider what you hear about the pre-modern concepts of love and what humans need – how and why they bond with their mothers. Think about what a psychologist might look like back then (almost all men and almost all white). How might that have affected the studies that were funded and conducted?
Act One: Love is Battlefield: Pay attention to when Daniel started to really gets bad. His birthday… I wonder why? Which agents of socialization did Daniel encounter as he was growing up? Which did he NOT encounter?
SIDE NOTE – Do you know anything about the history of Romanian orphans circa 1980? Remember this when in the Deviance lesson, you watch the documentary Freakonomics: It’s Not Always a Wonderful Life (there was a Romanian dictator that outlawed abortions – Daniel was part of that wave of institutionalized immigrants – thousands upon thousands of unwanted children, without enough people to properly look after them. Crime Rates can be empirically connected to a woman’s reproductive rights…something to talk more about later – and that’s very important considering the current political atmosphere.)
Finally, read the article entitled “The Girl in the Window.”
This St Pete Times article called The Girl in the Window (Links to an external site.), speaks for itself and you will probably cry – sorry. Also, look for the multi-media links that contains audio files of interviews and a photographic essay. Why would a sociology class include an article like this – isn’t this stuff psychological?
If we connect this article with the This American Life episode Unconditional Love – What do the Harlow monkeys and Dani have in common? Once social scientists acknowledged love as an important variable in the development of human children, in what ways do you think the research communities changed? What about the similarities and differences between Dani and Daniel? Consider all the ways that humans develop when they are infants and children: Cognitively, emotionally, physically, morally, socially… what key stages did Dani miss out on and what were there affects? What about Daniel? Finally, ask yourself, will these people ever lead “normal” lives? Consider again all the Agents of Socialization that Dani was and was not exposed to – who is responsible for Dani, and other children like her? Your knee-jerk reaction is to say her parents – but in a society, who else has something at stake? Think back to mechanical and organic solidarity – modern societies rely on one another for much more because we have specialized so much. Again, be prepared to take these questions into the next module and think about deviance and crime – what happens to unwanted, unloved, neglected and abused children? Do you want those folks interacting with you and yours in your daily loves if they’ve had no loving relationships, ever?
the book: https://openstax.org/books/introduction-sociology-3e/pages/5-1-theories-of-self-development (5-2,5-3)
Chapter 6: Groups & Organizations
Organize:
Chapter Outline: Here is a brief overview of the major ideas introduced in this Lesson. Review this before you read the Lesson material:
6.1 Types of Groups
Groups largely define how we think of ourselves. There are two main types of groups: primary and secondary. As the names suggest, the primary group is the long-term, complex one. People use groups as standards of comparison to define themselves—both who they are and who they are not. Sometimes groups can be used to exclude people or as a tool that strengthens prejudice.
6.2 Group Size and Structure
The size and dynamic of a group greatly affects how members act. Primary groups rarely have formal leaders, although there can be informal leadership. Groups generally are considered large when there are too many members for a simultaneous discussion. In secondary groups there are two types of leadership functions, with expressive leaders focused on emotional health and wellness, and instrumental leaders more focused on results. Further, there are different leadership styles: democratic leaders, authoritarian leaders, and laissez-faire leaders.
Within a group, conformity is the extent to which people want to go along with the norm. A number of experiments have illustrated how strong the drive to conform can be. It is worth considering real-life examples of how conformity and obedience can lead people to ethically and morally suspect acts.
6.3 Formal Organizations
Large organizations fall into three main categories: normative/voluntary, coercive, and utilitarian. We live in a time of contradiction: while the pace of change and technology are requiring people to be more nimble and less bureaucratic in their thinking, large bureaucracies like hospitals, schools, and governments are more hampered than ever by their organizational format. At the same time, the past few decades have seen the development of a trend to bureaucratize and conventionalize local institutions. Increasingly, Main Streets across the country resemble each other; instead of a Bob’s Coffee Shop and Jane’s Hair Salon there is a Dunkin Donuts and a Supercuts. This trend has been referred to as the McDonaldization of society.



the book: https://openstax.org/books/introduction-sociology-3e/pages/6-1-types-of-groups (6-2,6-3)
Chapter 7: Deviance, Crime, and Social Control
Organize:
Chapter Outline: Here is a brief overview of the major ideas introduced in this Lesson. Review this before you read the Lesson material:
7.1 Deviance and Control
Deviance is a violation of norms. Whether or not something is deviant depends on contextual definitions, the situation, and people’s response to the behavior. Society seeks to limit deviance through the use of sanctions that help maintain a system of social control. Deviance is often relative, and perceptions of it can change quickly and unexpectedly.
7.2 Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance and Crime
The three major sociological paradigms offer different explanations for the motivation behind deviance and crime. Functionalists point out that deviance is a social necessity since it reinforces norms by reminding people of the consequences of violating them. Violating norms can open society’s eyes to injustice in the system. Conflict theorists argue that crime stems from a system of inequality that keeps those with power at the top and those without power at the bottom. Symbolic interactionists focus attention on the socially constructed nature of the labels related to deviance. Crime and deviance are learned from the environment and enforced or discouraged by those around us.
7.3 Crime and the Law
Crime is established by legal codes and upheld by the criminal justice system. In the United States, there are three branches of the justice system: police, courts, and corrections. Although crime rates and incarceration increased throughout most of the twentieth century, they are now dropping. Despite these developments, inequitable law enformcenent is a destructive reality in American communities, and efforts are underway to improve outcomes.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGq9zW9w3Fw&feature=emb_title
the book: https://openstax.org/books/introduction-sociology-3e/pages/7-1-deviance-and-control#0 (7-2, 7-3)

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