Reply to these discussions from my collegemates either agree or disagree and explain the reasons.

Reply to these discussions from my collegemates either agree or disagree and explain the reasons.
1. Ainsworth, influenced by Bowlby’s attachment theory, theorized that the attachment style of an individual is programmed during a child’s early years and is rooted in the style of attachment that they have with their mothers. Within her theory, she described the attachment styles as being formed in four ways: secure attachment, anxious-ambivalent attachment, anxious-avoidant attachment and disorganized attachment. As I child, my attachment style to my primary caregiver was secure attachment. In the childhood period, I recall that my mom would always be working because she was a single mother who had to feed my brother and I. We would always be under the care of my grandmother who also lived with us but I remember that in moments that my mother was gone, I would get distressed and sad because my mom would leave. Since I was a child I didn’t understand completely the reasoning behind her leaving. As I waited for my mother to come back, I would spend most of my time with my grandmother and aunt and they would offer me the comfort that I needed in those times. This didn’t mean, though, that I wasn’t yearning to receive that same comfort from my mother as well. When she would return I remember that I would run to her and give her a hug as a means of easing the distress that I might’ve felt by her leaving. This cycle would repeat for a few months, until I became conditioned to her leaving. I ended up realizing that my mom was going to return back to me so the distress started to simmer.
These attachment styles are said to apply even to our romantic relationships. As an adult now, I do see signs of secure attachment still. I tend to have no issues with trusting my significant other and no problem with communicating my feelings with them. I’m expressive and trusting with my partner. The only difference is that I haven’t had a long-lasting relationship. The longest relationship that I had, lasted for a duration of 6 months. This is probably the only difference that I recall in this moment. My attachment style has remained the same as when I was a child.
2. Mary Ainsworth’s attachment styles are secure and insecure. In the secure attachment style, the infant shows happiness at seeing her/his mother and initiates contact with her. On the other hand, insecure attachment is divided into three categories: avoidant or dismissive, anxious ambivalent, and disorganized. In the anxious ambivalent attachment, the child shows two reactions, one is that she/he seeks contact with the mother and at the same time the child does not want the mother to carry him/her. This may be because the infant feels happy to see the mother but at the same time feels comfortable with the stranger. The avoidant or dismissive style is when the infant feels calm when the mother leaves and ignores her when she returns because she/he feels comfortable with the stranger. Finally, the disorganized style is when the infant does not follow a specific pattern.
I remember a lot when I was a child experiencing secure attachment, whenever my mother dropped me off at school, or when I started a new term with a new teacher, the moment she would go to pick me up, I would run to where she was with a smile on my face. That moment when I would see her, I would feel that nothing could happen to me anymore, that I was going to be safe. Confidence and security it was what she transmitted to me.
Now that I am an adult, I still feel this with my parents but I also feel it with my partner. We are usually together, but when we’re apart, whether it’s traveling, or when I have to go places where I’m with complete strangers, I feel the need to have him with me. For me, he also represents my safe place, and it always makes me very happy when I see him again.
3.We took the VIA Survey of Character Strengths this week, and I was excited to know my strengths. Looking back at last week’s surveys, I did not score high on the Good Life section of the Approaches to Happiness survey, and this had to do with recognizing our strengths and using them in our lives. So, after taking the test, I was pleasantly surprised with my results. My first strength was fairness, equality, and justice. The Authentic Happiness site described this strength as one of my ongoing principles: to treat all people fairly. I do not let personal feelings bias my decisions on other people. I give everyone a chance.
When I look back at my friend groups or group assignments, I agree that I make sure everyone is heard and happy. I do not want anyone to feel that their concerns or inputs are ignored or treated unequally. I want everyone to feel respected and included. My second strength was citizenship, teamwork, and loyalty, which means I am a loyal and dedicated teammate. People have come to characterize optimism as a positive resource for relationships, both for general social networks and close relationships (Carver et al., 2010). I always do my part, and I work hard to ensure success for the group. Being someone that others can rely on has always been something that I found important. No matter what it may be, I want to always put all my efforts in so that everyone knows I am there for them and that they can always rely on me to be there with anything they need.
My third strength is industry, diligence, and perseverance which means I work hard to finish what I start, and no matter what the task is, I get it done promptly. I do not get distracted while working, and I am satisfied with completing my tasks. The other facet of the expectancy-value model is the confidence that a goal can be attained. If people are confident about eventually reaching a goal, they will preserver even in the face of great adversity (Carver et al., 2010). I agree that this is a strength of mine. I never leave my work for the last second the earlier I can get things done, the better it is for me. I also put all my attention into whatever I am doing to complete the task correctly and on time. I wouldn’t procrastinate regarding school assignments, work, or even errands. This strength can even play into my previous two of wanting to be someone you can rely on and making sure everyone is being treated fairly. My fourth strength is self-control and self-regulation, meaning I regulate my feeling and actions. I am a disciplined person and do let emotions or actions control me. When we experience difficulties, a person’s emotions can range from enthusiasm and eagerness to anger, anxiety, and depression. The balance among feelings relates to differences in optimism (Carver et al., 2010).
I am a strong-willed person, and I can say enough is enough. I do not let things cloud my judgment, and I always stop and try to think things through. My final strength is modesty and humility. It states that I do not seek the spotlight, and I prefer to let my accomplishments speak for themselves. It also mentions that I do not regard myself as special, and others recognize and value my modesty. I would agree that I do not seek the spotlight. I do not receive attention, nor am I the center of attention. I don’t ever tell anymore if I accomplish something because I do not want any attention. I am happy with the accomplishment itself; I do not want others to say more. Even writing about myself is a bit difficult for me. Many people have told me before I am a very modest person, so I was not surprised that that is one of my strengths. My VIA Survey of Character Strengths results relates to this week’s readings because they discuss optimism. My results were able to show me the traits I carry that resemble an optimistic mentality. Getting a better understanding of my strengths also gave me a better idea of whether I am optimistic or pessimistic.
4.After taking the Via survey of Characters Strengths at the Authentic Happiness site, I was thinking about all the questions and how do they reflect on me. Having the chance to take these surveys is amazing because with each of them I learn more about myself.
For each question, I truly ask myself how I felt in relation to the sentence. This survey also made me realize and have a deep thinking about everything I have lived and done so far.
After finishing the 240 questions, it gave me the results that showed my top strengths. My first one is Fairness, equity, and justice it was based on the questions that had a relation with this I showed that treating people fairly is one of my top priorities, it does also explains that I do not let my personal feelings count against the correct decisions regarding other people and that at the same time I want to offer everyone a fair chance.
My second strength is curiosity and interest in the world. I have always taught about myself as a curious person that wants to learn and discover new things, and this questionnaire affirms my thoughts, it says that I am curious about everything, also always asking a question to learn, and that I find everything fascinating.
As my third strength, it showed gratitude, it explain that after gathering the information from the question it was able to analyze and said that I am aware of the good things that happen to me and I feel happy and grateful, that for sure I never take things for granted because everything can change in any second. My friends and family know that I am like that and that I always take the time to appreciate them and be thankful for them being part of my life.
My strength number four is Forgiveness and mercy as it explained that I am a person that is able to forgive those who have made something wrong and it also explains that I am always willing to give second chances.
And lastly, my strength number five is Kindness and generosity, it explains that the result of my questions showed that I am a person that is kind and generous to others, that I find myself always available when others need me, and that I find pleasure in helping them and if there anything in my hands that I can do to help I will always do it.
All of this is related to this week’s reading as it shows that I am optimistic, my results showed that I have many traits that help me be better and hope for a better future, that I am optimistic for what is yet to come, and gratefully waits for it.
This assignment taught me to have a better understanding of my strengths and also the view that others may have of me thanks to them. This helped me get a better idea of myself, what I want to do, and also if I was really an optimistic person.
Authentic happiness. University of Pennsylvania. (n.d.). Retrieved February 7, 2022, from (Links to an external site.)
Kittelstad, K. (n.d.). Examples of strengths: Personal and professional. Examples. Retrieved February 7, 2022, from
5.Parents have a significant influence on their children’s behavior. Children look up to their parents as role models. Quality time spent together builds family unity and enhances the possibility that teenagers will share their parents’ ideals. It creates a climate of honesty, mutual trust, and respect. During family meals, create opportunities for open communication. Allow for appropriate freedom and security based on age. Create a relationship in which your child is encouraged to interact with his or her parents. Parents must provide guidance, enforce rules, apply discipline, establish limits, and accept responsibility for their children’s behavior. They are responsible for instilling ideals and providing direction that will assist children in changing, growing, and maturing.
Researchers have identified four types of parenting methods.
Authoritarian is a very strict form of parenting. It raises great expectations in children with little responsiveness. Authoritarian parents focus more on obedience, discipline, and control than on raising the child. Mistakes can be severely punished, and when the reaction occurs it is often negative.
Authoritative parenting is a matter of reasonable demand and high responsiveness. While authoritative parents may have high expectations of their children, they provide children with the resources and support they need to be successful.
Permissive parenting is a type of parenting characterized by low demands with high responsiveness. Permissive parents are very loving but provide few guidelines and rules. These parents do not expect mature behavior from their children, often more like a friend than a parent.
Uninvolved parenting, sometimes called neglectful parenting, is characterized by a lack of responsiveness to a child’s needs. neglectful parents tend to underestimate the needs of their children, who are often ignored, dismissed, or completely ignored.
In my own experience, my parent tend to be strict when I was a kid. I think that they used a combination of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles because they are always telling us on doing things properly–by reinforcement and punishment. (ex: fixing the bed after waking up, doing household chores before playing, finishing assignments before going playing with our friends, etc.). Even though my parents were strict when I was a kid, Those difficulties improves my overall personality and behavior (ex: being respectful to elders, proper etiquette and manners in public areas, etc.). Therefore, I conclude that my parenting style when I was a kid is truly effective in shaping my behavior. Well, in this present times, my parents are quite doing the “authoritarian” and “permissive” parenting style to us, and it seems that it is quite effective to my sister (ex: guiding us on what is wrong or right on a certain decision, reminding us to behave on certain situations, scolding us whenever a misunderstanding happens, etc.)
6.During adolescence, parents must learn to balance their concern for the adolescent’s safety with their support for their autonomous decision-making. Kobak et al. (2017) describe a “sensitively attuned parent” as one who practices positive engagement, supervision/guidance and open communication in order to “support and facilitate the continuing development of the adolescent’s self-confidence, autonomous decision-making, and communication skills” (Kobal et al., 2017).
The textbook recognizes four types of parenting styles: Authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and indifferent. In order to better understand these, Steinberg (2022) uses parameters established by Diana Baumrind in 1978, she believed there were two critical aspects of parental behavior toward adolescents, parental responsiveness and parental demandingness. The former deals with “the degree to which the parent responds to the child’s needs in an accepting, supportive manner” (Steinberg, 107). The second is defined as “the extent to which the parent expects and mature, responsible behavior” (Steinberg, 107).
Authoritative parents are responsive and demanding, their parenting styles are characterized by warmth and acceptance whilst simultaneously displaying firm behavioral guidelines. That being said, the adolescent is usually involved in any discourse and decision-making that concerns them. Authoritative parenting styles encourage autonomy and self-regulation. Adolescents with this type of parent will often display high levels of responsibility, self-assurance, creativity and curiosity (Steinberg, 108).
Authoritarian parents are demanding but not responsive. Their parenting style is rigid and cold; the parent has authority without question and there is little to no room for an open dialogue. An adolescent raised under this structure is usually more dependent and passive, showing little curiosity and self assurance (Steinberg, 108).
Indulgent parents are responsive but not demanding. They don’t believe in exerting control over an adolescent’s behavior and are generally very accepting and passive in their discipline. This usually leads to a less responsible, less mature adolescents, some of whom engage in delinquent behavior and/or recklessly experiment with drugs and sex (Steinberg, 108).
Indifferent parents are neither responsive nor demanding. This parenting style is characterized by a neglect of the child, they do not consider what is best for their kid and instead structure their life around their own needs and interests. This usually leads the adolescent to engage in illicit activities and display overall problematic behavior.
My parents would fall under the authoritative category. They were always very clear on what they expected from me: certain grades, honesty, and an overall sense of responsibility. Beyond that they were incredibly supportive and open, punishment was usually delivered in the form of a mature conversation; a reflection of my actions and their reactions. In large part because of this, despite sporadically engaging in typical teenage experimentation and reckless behavior, I was an overall responsible kid who did well in school and had an engaging social life outside of it.
Kobak, R., Abbott, C., Zisk, A., & Bounoua, N. (2017). Adapting to the changing needs of adolescents: Parenting practices and challenges to sensitive attunement. Current Opinion in Psychology, 15, 137-142. doi: (Links to an external site.)
Steinberg, Laurence. Adolescence. McGraw-Hill US Higher ED, 2022

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