How were these concepts operationalized?

Journal Article Critiquing Assignment
Instructions on how to write the critique:
 Respond to each question.
 Put major terms in bold.
 Respond to the 5 questions in the question-answer format.
 Please refer to the writing rubric below to understand how you will be graded.
Watch the video on how to find quantitative peer-reviewed articles on the Lamar University Library website. You can also look up the database “Criminal Justice Abstracts” in the Lamar University Library website. Now choose one article that is quantitative (to do with numbers and statistics) or have an empirical orientation and answer the following questions in the question-answer format:
1. Give the full citation for the article in APA format. For example,
Breedlove, W. & Worley, V.B. (2020) Excited delirium and use of force by police.
ACJS Today, 46(3), 1-8.
2. What were the major concepts employed in the study?
There needs to be at least two major concepts, which eventually become the independent and dependent variables. Do not write the major concepts in the form of a paragraph. Please list the concepts. e.g.
Drug use, etc.
3. How were these concepts operationalized?
Operationalization is how a concept is defined in a study. Operationalization takes place before the study begins and is different from how the data is collected. Show how at least two of the major concepts were operationalized; e.g. Recidivism for a particular study can be operationalized as offenders reoffending within 3 years of release from prison. (This is how recidivism is defined or operationalized in a particular article. It will be different for different articles).
4. Identify the dependent and independent variables and write down the hypothesis.
e.g. DV: Recidivism (the variable that is dependent on the independent variable and is caused by the IV)
IV: Peer pressure, drug use, etc. (demographic variables are usually IVs)
Hypothesis: Recidivism is likely to increase with increase in peer pressure and drug use.
5. What types of data gathering strategies were utilized?
e.g. This is how the researcher collects data. Write about the sample size. Where and how did the researcher collect the information? Looking at arrest reports, or survey method, etc.

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