ENVSCI 104 –Dinosaurs: A Natural History Spring 2022, Feb 16-Feb 23
Quiz 2 – Essay Format – Cladistics
• The group portion of the examination is over when this is posted, all work submitted is expected to be your own (although you may of course draw on insights in your group).
• You may include figures, which should have informative captions and references.
• Y ou should include references in ML A or similar format, see
• The complete answer to the exam should be no more than 2 pages, not including references and figures.
• The scoring for all questions is given with the questions.
• You must submit the examination as a PDF file to Turnitin. Turnitin performs automated plagiarism
• The examination must be submitted before midnight on Thursday, Feb 24rd. Students with
accommodations approved by the Ross Center only should use the “with accommodation” version of the test, which is due before midnight on Monday, Feb 28th .
Participated in group: 10 points, all or nothing.
1. Define a total or pan group that includes all of Dinosauria and as few additional animals as possible, consistent with the cladistic definition of a pan group (32 points).
10 points for any attempt to answer the question.
10 points for defining a cladistically valid crown group as a basis for the pan group (even if it doesn’t work out in the end)
10 points for defining a cladistically valid pan group that includes all nonavian dinosaurs. 2 points for clarity and completeness of discussion, and appropriate use of figures and/or references
2. Define a stem group that includes all nonavian dinosaurs and as few other animals as possible (32 points).
10 points for any attempt to answer the question
10 points for describing a cladistically valid stem group
10 points for relating the stem group to named taxa (taxa is the plural of taxon)
1 points for clarity and completeness of discussion, and use of figures and/or references
3. Discuss the relevance of the stem group (26 points).
10 points for any attempt to answer the question.
10 points for addressing whether it is a coherent group that is easy to understand as a group,
that is, whether it is more or less appealing as a group to study than clade Dinosauria.
6 points for clarity and completeness of discussion. You are expected to offer your views (2 points), and justify them with references and figures as appropriate (2 points), but above all with reasoned argument based on you understanding of cladistics, vertebrate taxonomy, and in particular your views of what a dinosaur is (2 points).
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