Compare how the dopamine hypothesis and NMDA hypothesis are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

1. (Maureen) Three hypotheses influence the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Serotonin, dopamine, GABA, and glutamate are the main chemicals involved in the three hypotheses of the development of schizophrenia (Singh et al., 2020). This discussion compares how the dopamine hypothesis and NMDA hypothesis are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Besides, it highlights how the NMDA and dopamine hypotheses influence the development of both the positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Both NMDA and dopamine hypotheses play an essential role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, both follow different paths in their roles in the processes. Patients with schizophrenia can experience both positive and negative symptoms of the disease. The dopamine hypothesis has four different dopaminergic pathways that inform the development of schizophrenia (McCutcheon et al., 2020). The dopamine hypothesis contributes to a patient having positive symptoms of the disease. Besides, it also leads to excessive activation of the dopamine receptors through the mesolimbic pathways. The dopamine hypothesis affects the extrapyramidal system in situations where dopamine levels are low, especially in the nigrostriatal pathway. Besides, low levels of dopamine within the mesocortical pathway result in negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
On the other hand, NMDARs are forms of inotropic glutamate receptors made of NR1 and NR2/NR3 subunits. The subunits perform both pre and post-synaptic activities during the glutamatergic neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and local rhythmic activity (McCutcheon et al., 2020). The function of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) hypothesis in the development of schizophrenia is mainly understood by observing the functions of the NMDA receptor antagonists in the induction of the full range of the symptoms experienced by schizophrenic patients. McCutcheon et al. (2020) state that they are responsible for modulating high-order brain functions, memory, and cognition. NMDA plays a role in exacerbating the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia when there is a slowdown in its activity within the brain.
The following are positive symptoms of schizophrenia except:
Movement disorders
Rationale- The answer is withdrawal. According to McCutcheon et al. (2020), understanding the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia is essential to know how they come about and how the different hypotheses contribute to the development of schizophrenia.
Which of the following chemical is not essential in the pathophysiologic pathways of the development of schizophrenia
Rationale- According to Singh et al. (2020), schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder linked to different causes that need more profound understanding. Therefore, knowing and understanding the main neurochemicals involved in its pathophysiology makes it easier to understand how different neurochemical pathways are related to the development of schizophrenia.
2. (Toni) Historical the syndrome of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattentions was labeled attention-deficit disorder (ADD), “hyperactivity,” “hyperkinetic syndrome,” “minimal brain damage,” or “minimal brain dysfunction; however, these terms are no longer correct (Dulcan, 2017). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well-known for a trio of symptoms: hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. The hypothesis regarding the regulation of the brain and the impulsivity and inattention that is associated with ADHD is thought to arise for inefficient processing of information in the prefrontal cortex (PFC).
The PCF is located in the part of the brain at the front of the frontal lobe and contributes to a wide variety of executive functions. Executive functions include:
Coordinating and adjusting complex behaviors (“I can’t do A until B happens”)
Focusing one’s attention.
Impulse control; managing emotional reactions.
Planning for the future.
Predicting the consequences of one’s actions; anticipating events in the environment (Good Therapy, 2019).
Dulcan (2017) wrote that executive dysfunction is hypothetically linked to inefficient information processing in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Dysfunction affecting the PLPFC is linked not only to ADHD but many other psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, disorders of sleep and wakefulness, major depression, mania, pain, and schizophrenia. Imbalances in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) systems in the PCF, hypothetically occur in ADHD (Dulcan, 2017). It is hypnotized that increased levels of NE and DA would improve PFC function, thereby increasing stimulation of postsynaptic a2A receptors and stimulation of D1 receptors. Further theories about the role of NE is to increase incoming signals by allowing increased connectivity of the prefrontal networks, whereas the role of DA would be to decrease the noise by preventing inappropriate connections from taking place (Dulcan, 2017).
What are the two neurotransmitters released in the prefrontal cortex that stimulate receptors on postsynaptic neurons, allowing for optimal signal transmission and neuronal firing?
Dopamine and Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine
Dopamine and Norepinephrine
Acetylcholine and Serotonin
Answer: C, rational – Under normal conditions, norepinephrine and dopamine in the prefrontal cortex stimulate a few receptors on postsynaptic neurons, allowing for optimal signal transmission and neuronal firing (Dulcan, 2017, p. 455).
Deficient dopamine input will theoretically lead to ___________ noise, while deficient norepinephrine input will cause a __________ in the incoming signal.
Increased, decrease
Decreased, decrease
Increased, increase
Decreased, increase
Answer: A, rational – Deficient dopamine input will theoretically lead to increased noise, while deficient norepinephrine input will cause a decrease in the incoming signal (Dulcan, 2017, p. 455).

Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.


Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.


Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.


Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.