Are these part of the OS?

Learning Goal: I’m working on a operating systems writing question and need a sample draft to help me learn. A program which controls the execution of all other programs (applications).
Acts as an intermediary between the user(s) and the computer. • Objectives:
– convenience, – efficiency,– extensibility. Similar to a government. . .
• The Operating System (OS):– controls all execution.– multiplexes resources between applications. – abstracts away from complexity.Operating System
Typically also have some libraries and some tools provided with OS.
Are these part of the OS? Is IE a tool?
– no-one can agree. . . For us, the OS ≈ the kernel.
Batch Systems Introduction of tape drives allow batching of jobs:
– programmers put jobs on cards as before. – all cards read onto a tape.– operator carries input tape to computer. – results written to output tape.– output tape taken to printer. Computer now has a resident monitor:
– initially control is in monitor.– monitor reads job and transfer control.– at end of job, control transfers back to monitor. Even better: spooling systems.
– use interrupt driven I/O.– use magnetic disk to cache input tape. – fire operator. Monitor now schedules jobs. . .
Protecting the CPU
Need to ensure that the OS stays in control.
– i.e. need to prevent any a malicious or badly-written application from ‘hogging’ the CPU the whole time.⇒ use a timer device. Usually use a countdown timer, e.g.
1. set timer to initial value (e.g. 0xFFFF).2. every tick (e.g. 1μs), timer decrements value. 3. when value hits zero, interrupt. (Modern timers have programmable tick rate.)
Hence OS gets to run periodically and do its stuff.
Need to ensure only OS can load timer, and that interrupt cannot be masked.
– use same scheme as for other devices.– (viz. privileged instructions, memory protection) Same scheme can be used to implement time-sharing (more on this later).
Operating Systems — Structures & Protection MechanismsOperating System Functions Regardless of structure, OS needs to securely multiplex resources: 1. protect applications from each other, yet
2. share physical resources between them. Also usually want to abstract away from grungy harware, i.e. OS
provides a virtual machine:– share CPU (in time) and provide each app with a virtual processor,– allocate and protect memory, and provide applications with theirown virtual address space,– present a set of (relatively) hardware independent virtual devices,– divide up storage space by using filing systems, and– do all this within the context of a security framework. Remainder of this part of the course will look at each of the above areas in turn. . .
Operating Systems — Functions 15
Requirements: It includes an introduction to Operating system (OS): Computer system structure and organization. OS definition, function, history. Categories, OS services, and operations. Note: If this data is useful for you , may you recommended it. | Assembly Language

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