Are public health laws, vaccination mandates, and mask mandates a violation of individual rights OR a right of the republic?


Commentary:  Think mask, vaccine mandates violate your rights?
You misunderstand rights
Anti-mask and anti-vaccination anger is strong throughout the country, and S.C. Gov. Henry McMaster is one of the politicians encouraging this anger. He recently said that “we will fight (the Democrats) to the gates of hell to protect the liberty and livelihood of every South Carolinian.” The cry of “We have our rights” is all around us. The problem is that those who are making the most noise about their rights do not understand the first thing about the rights they claim to love so much.
The doctrine of natural rights was developed in English philosophy by Thomas Hobbes and then revised and expanded by John Locke as part of what has become known as social contract theory. When Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, he drew heavily on Locke’s theory. What the anti-mask and anti-vaccination people do not understand (or refuse to admit) is that, while social contract theory celebrates rights that are absolute and unlimited in the state of nature, it also mandates that rights be modified and limited once we agree to live together in civil society. There is no such thing as an absolute right once we choose to live together in a community.
In the state of nature, we have an absolute right to life, but civil society can send its citizens to war. In the state of nature, we have an absolute right to liberty, but civil society can take away a person’s liberty (with due process) if that person commits a crime. And with regard to property, we have an absolute right in the state of nature, but in civil society our property can be taken away (again, with due process). In the state of nature, we can do whatever we want, but when we enter civil society we can’t. In other words, we all agree to give up the unlimited expression of our rights for the opportunities afforded by civil society.
That is what is meant by the word “citizen.” The word itself means “a person of the city.” And as Adam Smith says in “The Theory of Moral Sentiments,” a person “is not a citizen who is not disposed to respect the laws and to obey the civil magistrate; and (a person) is certainly not a good citizen who does not wish to promote, by every means in (that person’s) power, the welfare of the whole society of (that person’s) fellow citizens.”
This idea permeates our Constitution. Take freedom of speech. Everyone knows, even if some refuse to admit, that the First Amendment does not allow people to say whatever they want. Constitutional law has a whole tradition of cases dealing with when and where and under what circumstances people can speak or not speak. Inciting others to imminent lawless action is a crime, even though it is done with speech. Libel, under most circumstances, is not protected speech. Fighting words are not protected speech. And speech can be regulated as well with regard to time, place and circumstances.
Constitutional government inherently involves the limitation of rights. So it is particularly repulsive to hear mandate protesters say that any requirement that they wear masks or get the vaccine is reminiscent of Nazism, as U.S. Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene of Georgia did recently. Not only was this an insult to all the Jews who were slaughtered by the Nazis, it misses the point. All free societies have the authority to limit some freedoms of their citizens for the good of all. Democracies do not become tyrannies when they require their citizens to do some things they don’t want to do.
Does this mean that all decisions made by employers or the government are correct or that they are beyond question? Does this mean that President Joe Biden’s new vaccination mandate is beyond challenge? Of course not. But it does mean that you are either ignorant of the foundational theory of our country or disingenuous if you claim that requiring masks or the vaccine is always a violation of your rights.
Disagreement about public policy is part of a vibrant democracy, but if we are to sort through the many problems that confront us, we need to offer our disagreements in a civil manner. Democracies celebrate the rule of the people, not the rule of the mob, and couching every disagreement over legal matters in apocalyptic terms as a war on capitalism and a battle between virtuous defenders of rights and vicious enemies of rights does no one any good.
Solomon D. Stevens received his doctorate in political science from Boston College and taught political philosophy, constitutional law and American politics. His two books are “Challenges to Peace in the Middle East” and “Religion, Politics, and the Law” (co-authored).
1905 Supreme Court  ruling-Jacobson v. Massachusetts upholds vaccination mandates
Individual Liberty, Public Health, and the Battle for the Nation’s Soul
Contrary to longstanding precedent, individualism reigns supreme in recent legal decisions over COVID-19.
In two recent cases—Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn v. Andrew M. Cuomo  and South Bay United Pentecostal Church v. Gavin Newsom )—the U.S. Supreme Court struck down COVID-19 emergency restrictions on religious gatherings. On the surface, the Justices argued with each other over factual questions, such as whether religious institutions were actually being treated differently than secular ones, whether evidence demonstrated that the restrictions were necessary, and whether changes in the pandemic, at least for the moment, made the cases moot. But underneath these arguments, another fight has been ensuing over the current viability of the Court’s 1905 decision in Jacobson v. Massachusetts (. Ultimately, this fight is over the nature of rights and liberty under the American Constitution. Who wins this fight will define America for perhaps a century or longer, determining what Americans owe their country and each other.
In 1902, smallpox was spreadingin America. There was a vaccine, but industrial pharmaceutical production was in its infancy, and anti-vaccine sentiment was widespread. When vaccination rates fell, outbreaks emerged, and health authorities responded by rolling out vaccination campaigns. In Massachusetts, the Board of Health of Cambridge, facing the epidemic, ordered all residents to be vaccinated. Henning Jacobson, a local minister, refused and was fined $5. Backed by anti-vax advocates, he took his case all the way to the Supreme Court.
In those days, haphazardly made vaccines were killing people, so Jacobson’s unwillingness was not beyond all reason. Yet he lost (Links to an external site.), and to no one’s surprise. Having laid out the evidence that smallpox vaccination was generally regarded as safe and effective, and noting that Jacobson offered no evidence that vaccination might be particularly dangerous to him, the court explained why he could not demand simply to be left alone. He did indeed have a constitutional right to liberty, but if it came down to a conflict between his individual liberty and the welfare of the community, well—as the old maxim  put it in other cases—salus populi supreme lex: the health of the people is the supreme law.
To the Supreme Court of that day, this principle was not just some hoary relic of the common law; rather it was (Links to an external site.) “a fundamental principle of the social compact that the whole people covenants with each citizen and each citizen with the whole people.” The Court concluded “that all shall be governed by certain laws for ‘the common good,’ and that government is instituted ‘for the common good, for the protection, safety, prosperity, and happiness of the people, and not for the profit, honor, or private interests of any one man, family, or class of men.’” Americans get all the benefits of civil society—cooperation, good government, potable water, public health protection, democracy, and even liberty itself—agreeing, in turn, that there may be times when individual interests must give way to the needs of society.
The Court’s reasoning was not novel. It went back to a document that every schoolchild once knew: the Mayflower Compact of 1620 (Links to an external site.), which reflected the ideas of political philosophers John Locke  and Thomas Hobbes . The Court also drew upon more than a century of legal thinking that guided governmental regulatory action through the 1800s. Salus populi’s legal sibling was a maxim  called sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas—use your own property so as not to injure the property of others. You could build a pier into the river from the bank you owned—but not so far into the river as to interfere with shipping. You could open a business melting fat into tallow—but, if you made too much stink, your neighbors could shut you down. Like salus populi, this maxim drew  a line of public good around the rights of individuals to pursue their own interests.
This restriction was not oppression, but a core facet of the social compact on which American governmental authority was based. And it was absolutely necessary in practical terms. As the Jacobson Court put it:
The liberty secured by the Constitution of the United States to every person within its jurisdiction does not import an absolute right in each person to be, at all times and in all circumstances, wholly freed from restraint. There are manifold restraints to which every person is necessarily subject for the common good. On any other basis, organized society could not exist with safety to its members.
For well over a hundred years—through polio, measles, HIV, and Ebola—Jacobson sailed the legal seas of public health as the accepted leading case, important both for its specific legal standards and its vision of the social contract in emergencies.”
Jacobson’s importance in modern law does not stem from its “test” in a First Amendment or Due Process case or even the vitality of its general posture of deference to public health authorities in an emergency. The important issue is its vision of coexistence and cooperation in a democratic commonwealth. Today, however, Jacobson’s vision is in jeopardy. Although many of the hundreds of COVID-19 constitutional cases have followed the precedent on a few significant occasions, courts have unveiled a new view based less on the social contract than on a strong form of libertarianism. For example, in a case  overturning Wisconsin’s COVID-19 emergency measures, the state supreme court did not see the problem as a pandemic so much as it saw the problem as tyranny. Saving lives is a worthwhile goal, but secondary, as one of the justices explained : “The people of Wisconsin pronounced liberty to be of primary importance, establishing government principally to protect their freedom.”
The libertarian language is not subtle. These cases have the hyperbolic ring of an anti-mask protest on the steps of a state capitol. In a case  overturning the Pennsylvania governor’s pandemic restrictions, a federal judge demonstrated  with the specter of a coup how the hyper-libertarian approach recasts and raises the stakes: “In an emergency, even a vigilant public may let down its guard over its constitutional liberties only to find that liberties, once relinquished, are hard to recoup and that restrictions—although expedient in the face of an emergency situation—may persist long after immediate danger has passed.”
The Jacobson court reasoned  that government is ordained for the good of us all, and so the rights of individuals, although sacred, can be set aside when it is necessary for the common good. In legal terms, the Jacobson court established a test of reasonable necessity, not a balancing of individual rights versus the public good.
But in these new libertarian cases, the reasoning is flipped. Government is established primarily to protect the liberty of individuals, and that individual liberty must be protected even if it puts all the rest of society at risk. The judge in the Pennsylvania case put  it like this: “The Constitution cannot accept the concept of a ‘new normal’ where the basic liberties of the people can be subordinated to open-ended emergency mitigation measures. Rather, the Constitution sets certain lines that may not be crossed, even in an emergency.” The court’s task, according to this judge, is to “balance  the legitimate authority of public officials in a health emergency with the Constitutional rights of citizens.” As a result, the hypothetical risk of a governor using emergency power to become a tyrant becomes more urgent to forestall than the virus that is actually killing people.
These cases are not outliers. The recent strict scrutiny of religious claims is quite consistent with nearly two decades of Supreme Court cases overturning once-standard public health measures on corporate free speech grounds. Moreover, the federal appellate bench and the Supreme Court are now more populated with judges sympathetic to or even leading the charge of hyper-libertarianism. In their view of America, the social contract is a one-sided deal: you have the right to exploit or be exploited, to win or lose—beat COVID or die—as individuals. The collective has nothing to say about it. This version of America resembles a Hobbesian war of all against all, not a commonwealth of citizens building value together, and it leads  to a few big winners in gated enclaves and a majority that is sick  tired, stressed, and increasingly humiliated.
It is an ugly vision of America. A country that started (Links to an external site.) with the idea of the commonwealth, where the individual would thrive and be free if the community thrived, where individual economic success was understood as a means necessary to a social end, has become a winner-take-all contest in a social colosseum. People who need help are derided as losers and parasites, and the call to put self-interest second to the common good is angrily denounced as socialism.
It is an ugly vision, but more importantly, a doomed one. The problems America faces, from extreme social inequality to climate change, require cooperation and shared sacrifice. As the Jacobson court said  a “society based on the rule that each one is a law unto himself would soon be confronted with disorder and anarchy.”
Public health law’s battle for the nation’s soul is the fight for America’s future. As in the recent Supreme Court cases on COVID-19 and religion, judges are now applying their strictest scrutiny to set aside painful but reasonable emergency regulations on the ground that America’s highest law is the protection of individual liberty. Elevating individual liberty over the common good will not get COVID-19 under control nor help the nation face the ongoing challenges of social inequality, climate change, or deep social divisions.
To achieve fairness, and to survive, the nation must heed (Links to an external site.) the more traditional wisdom of American law: “Real liberty for all could not exist under the operation of a principle which recognizes the right of each individual person to use his own, whether in respect of his person or his property, regardless of the injury that may be done to others.”
!!!!!!!!!!!THE QUESTIONS!!!!!!!!!!!
1) Are public health laws, vaccination mandates, and mask mandates a violation of individual rights OR a right of the republic?
2)Review the articles below and formulate an argument in support or in opposition.
3) Underlying argument- What did the Framer’s intend with the creation of a Republic (rather than a democracy) as applied to our current public health mandates.
4) Hint (I’m looking for an application of knowledge, not an analysis paper- after you read the information below, what do you think?)
5)You are free to argue against these articles!
Assignment Requirements:
This is not an analytical paper, but a summary analysis of your knowledge of the concepts in this chapter.  Students ARE NOT to cut and paste from the internet.  You are welcome to add cited sources to your response.

Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.


Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.


Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.


Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.